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|Fırat Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Veteriner Dergisi|
|2001, Cilt 15, Sayı 1, Sayfa(lar) 045-056|
|[ Turkish ] [ PDF ]|
|Investigations on Sensorial, Chemical and Microbiological Features of Tulum Cheese with Starter Culture during Maturation|
|Gülsüm ATEŞ, Bahri PATIR|
|Fırat Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi, Elazığ-TÜRKİYE|
|Keywords: Tulum cheese, sensorial, microbiological, chemical, starter culture|
The experimental tulum cheese of four types were made from raw milk (A) and pasteurised milks (B,C,D) using different starter culture combinations. The combinations of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis; Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactobacillus casei subsp casei ve Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris + Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp cremoris were used in the production of the pasteurised milk cheese. The cultures were inoculated to pasteurised milks at the rate of 1 % and 2 % preparing samples were examined for microbiological and chemical aspects on 0,15th,30th,60 th and 90th days of ripening.
The numbers of total mesophile aerob microorganisms and Lactobacillus-Leuconostoc-Pediococcus group microorganisms with Staphylococcus-Micrococcus in the whole experimental tulum cheese samples increased until days 15-30, but decreased at later periods with time. Lactococcus numbers in the whole cheese samples increased until day 15 of the maturation period and decreased later. It was observed that Lactococcus in raw milk cheese samples were at fewer level than other cheese samples during maturation. Coliform group microorganisms and Enterococcus continually decreased in all of the cheese samples during maturation period.
Depending on cheese types, both coliform group and Enterococcus microorganisms completely disappeared from medium on different days of maturation period. However, it was determined that in series containing 2 % starter cultures these microorganisms reached to 0 earlier than others. The yeast and mould numbers increased according to different cheese types until days 30-60 and decreased on following days with time.
The acidity amount in all of the samples reached to the highest level on days 90 by increasing continually until the end of the maturation, but pH values continually decreased during maturation. The humidity rates of the samples continually decreased from the beginning of maturation on ward. Whereas, the salt amounts increased during maturation. It was observed that there were significant differences in terms of taste and texture and appearance among different cheese types. The samples manufactured using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris + Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris combination was found to be better quality than the others.
In conclusion, the data indicate that the use of heat treated milk of starter cultures was useful and the culture combinations containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris + Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strains have the more positive effect on the sensorial features.
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